What Antibiotic Do You Take For Thymine Analog?


Which of the following antiviral is thymidine analogue?

Abstract. The use of alternative nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) to the thymidine analogues stavudine (d4T) and zidovudine(ZDV) has been advocated as a means of limiting long-term NRTI-associated toxicity, particularly the development of lipoatrophy or fat wasting.

Is zidovudine a thymidine analog?

Zidovudine (AZT; 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine), a thymidine analog, has been a staple of highly active antiretroviral therapy. It is phosphorylated in the host to the triphosphate and functions by inhibiting the viral reverse transcriptase.

What is thymidine analogue?

Thymidine analogs such as 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine are commonly used in place of radioactive thymidine. Using a thymidine analog to label DNA synthesis is reliable and accurate. It requires the injection of the analog into an animal or incubation in cells or tissue in culture where it is integrated into replicating DNA.

How do nucleotide analogues work as antiviral drugs?

Antiviral nucleotides are nucleotide analogs that repress the viral reproduction by interfering with several key mechanisms of viral nucleic acid replication. They compete with natural dNTP/NTP substrates for the incorporation into the nascent viral nucleic acid thereby leading to chain termination or mutagenesis (Tab.

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What is the result of a nucleoside analog?

The nucleoside analogues resemble naturally occurring nucleosides and act by causing termination of the nascent DNA chain. These agents are generally safe and well tolerated as they are used by the viral, but not human polymerases in DNA replication.

Which drug is reverse transcriptase inhibitors?

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

Drug Drug Description
Lamivudine A reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat HIV and hepatitis B infections.
Adefovir dipivoxil A nucleotide analog used to treat chronic hepatitis B.
Emtricitabine A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for the treatment and prophylaxis of HIV.



Azidothymidine ( AZT, 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine, zidovudine ), the first NRTI approved for the therapy of HIV-1, is incorporated into DNA, causes mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) and thymidine kinase (TK) genes, and induces micronuclei, chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid

Did AZT save lives?

Mortality rates for people taking AZT were staggeringly lower than those taking the placebo; there had been 19 deaths in the placebo group of 137 people, but only one in the AZT group of 145. Those on AZT also had a decreased number of opportunistic infections and showed improvement in weight gain and T4 cell counts.

Is zidovudine still used?

Zidovudine, also known as azidothymidine (AZT), was the first antiviral to be approved for the treatment of HIV. Although no longer a first-line agent, zidovudine is still used in combination with other ARVs for the treatment of HIV [39].

Is thymine a nucleoside?

Nucleosides are the structural subunit of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. A nucleoside, composed of a nucleobase, is either a pyrimidine (cytosine, thymine or uracil) or a purine (adenine or guanine), a five carbon sugar which is either ribose or deoxyribose.

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Is thymine acidic or basic?

The others are adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Thymine is also known as 5-methyluracil, a pyrimidine nucleobase. In RNA, thymine is replaced by the nucleobase uracil. Thymine.

Boiling point 335 °C (635 °F; 608 K) (decomposes)
Acidity (pKa) 9.7


Is thymidine the same as Deoxythymidine?

Thymidine ( deoxythymidine; other names deoxyribosylthymine, thymine deoxyriboside) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. Deoxythymidine is the DNA nucleoside T, which pairs with deoxyadenosine (A) in double-stranded DNA.

What is Remdesivir use for?

Remdesivir injection is used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19 infection) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus in hospitalized adults and children 12 years of age and older who weigh at least 88 pounds (40 kg). Remdesivir is in a class of medications called antivirals.

What are nucleoside mimics?

Nucleoside analogs are synthetic, chemically modified nucleosides that mimic their physiological counterparts (endogenous nucleosides ) and block cellular division or viral replication by impairment DNA/RNA synthesis or by inhibition of cellular or viral enzymes involved in nucleoside /tide metabolism (Figure 1).

What nucleosides do they mimic?

Nucleoside analogue drugs include:

  • deoxyadenosine analogues: didanosine (ddI)(HIV)
  • adenosine analogues: galidesivir (Ebola)
  • deoxycytidine analogues: cytarabine (chemotherapy)
  • guanosine and deoxyguanosine analogues: abacavir (HIV)
  • thymidine and deoxythymidine analogues: stavudine (d4T)
  • deoxyuridine analogues: idoxuridine.

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