- 1 What type of molecule helps in the process of replication?
- 2 Which replication enzyme is commonly targeted by antibiotics?
- 3 What molecules are needed for DNA replication?
- 4 How does DNA replication take place?
- 5 What is topoisomerase in DNA replication?
- 6 What is the first step in DNA replication?
- 7 Is Oflox an antibiotic?
- 8 What are the 5 mechanisms of action of antibiotics?
- 9 How do antibiotics know where the infection is?
- 10 Why does DNA replication occur in the 5 ‘- 3 direction only?
- 11 Where does energy for DNA replication come from?
- 12 What is Primase in DNA replication?
- 13 Can DNA replication start anywhere?
- 14 What is the end product of replication?
- 15 What is the purpose of DNA replication?
What type of molecule helps in the process of replication?
One of the key molecules in DNA replication is the enzyme DNA polymerase. DNA polymerases are responsible for synthesizing DNA: they add nucleotides one by one to the growing DNA chain, incorporating only those that are complementary to the template.
Which replication enzyme is commonly targeted by antibiotics?
13 FQs are the most successful class of antimicrobials targeting DNA replication and among the most widely used antimicrobials on the market. 2 The FQ mode of action is to stabilize cleaved DNAtopoisomerase II complexes, thereby increasing the number of double-stranded DNA breaks in the bacterial cell.
What molecules are needed for DNA replication?
These include (1) DNA polymerase and DNA primase to catalyze nucleoside triphosphate polymerization; (2) DNA helicases and single-strand DNA -binding (SSB) proteins to help in opening up the DNA helix so that it can be copied; (3) DNA ligase and an enzyme that degrades RNA primers to seal together the discontinuously
How does DNA replication take place?
Replication occurs in three major steps: the opening of the double helix and separation of the DNA strands, the priming of the template strand, and the assembly of the new DNA segment. Finally, a special enzyme called DNA polymerase organizes the assembly of the new DNA strands.
What is topoisomerase in DNA replication?
Topoisomerases (or DNA topoisomerases ) are enzymes that participate in the overwinding or underwinding of DNA. The winding problem of DNA arises due to the intertwined nature of its double-helical structure. During DNA replication and transcription, DNA becomes overwound ahead of a replication fork.
What is the first step in DNA replication?
The first step in DNA replication is the separation of the two DNA strands that make up the helix that is to be copied. DNA Helicase untwists the helix at locations called replication origins. The replication origin forms a Y shape, and is called a replication fork.
Is Oflox an antibiotic?
Ofloxacin is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics such as ofloxacin will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.
What are the 5 mechanisms of action of antibiotics?
- Five Basic Mechanisms of Antibiotic Action against Bacterial Cells:
- Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis.
- Inhibition of Protein Synthesis (Translation)
- Alteration of Cell Membranes.
- Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis.
- Antimetabolite Activity.
How do antibiotics know where the infection is?
When you swallow an antibiotic pill or liquid, it enters your digestive tract and is absorbed into the blood stream just as nutrients are from food. From there, it circulates throughout the body, soon reaching its target area, where pathogenic bacteria are causing an infection.
Why does DNA replication occur in the 5 ‘- 3 direction only?
DNA is always synthesized in the 5′- to- 3 ‘ direction, meaning that nucleotides are added only to the 3 ‘ end of the growing strand. As shown in Figure 2, the 5′- phosphate group of the new nucleotide binds to the 3’- OH group of the last nucleotide of the growing strand. Two phosphates are cleaved off.
Where does energy for DNA replication come from?
The energy for this process of DNA polymerization comes from hydrolysis of the high- energy phosphate (phosphoanhydride) bonds between the three phosphates attached to each unincorporated base.
What is Primase in DNA replication?
Primase functions by synthesizing short RNA sequences that are complementary to a single-stranded piece of DNA, which serves as its template. It is critical that primers are synthesized by primase before DNA replication can occur.
Can DNA replication start anywhere?
False DNA synthesis can start anywhere on a chromosome. False DNA synthesis starts only at one place on a chromosome. True DNA synthesis starts at specific locations on a chromosome. False DNA synthesis starts at every location at exactly the same time.
What is the end product of replication?
The result of DNA replication is two DNA molecules consisting of one new and one old chain of nucleotides. This is why DNA replication is described as semi-conservative, half of the chain is part of the original DNA molecule, half is brand new.
What is the purpose of DNA replication?
The goal of replication is to produce a second and identical double strand. Because each of the two strands in the dsDNA molecule serves as a template for a new DNA strand, the first step in DNA replication is to separate the dsDNA.