Often asked: Explains How An Antibiotic That Inhibits Protein Synthesis Can Be Selective.?

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Which of the following antibiotics attacks the ribosome and prevents protein synthesis?

The macrolides, such as erythromycin, are thought to inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit and blocking the tunnel where the polypeptide string is supposed to exit. This clogs up the ribosome and stops translation.

Why is penicillin selectively toxic to bacterial cells?

Why is penicillin selectively toxic to bacterial cells but harmless to human cells? Penicillin specifically weakens peptidoglycan, which is found only in bacterial cells. Human cells do not have cell walls and do not contain peptidoglycan, thus rendering penicillin harmless to them.

What method of antimicrobial susceptibility testing that involves measuring zones of inhibition around antibiotic disks placed on a culture of bacteria prior to incubation?

The Kirby-Bauer test, known as the disk -diffusion method, is the most widely used antibiotic susceptibility test in determining what choice of antibiotics should be used when treating an infection. This method relies on the inhibition of bacterial growth measured under standard conditions.

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How does erythromycin inhibit protein synthesis?

Erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 23S rRNA molecule (in the 50S subunit) of the bacterial ribosome blocking the exit of the growing peptide chain.

Which antibiotic inhibits protein synthesis?

Antibiotics can inhibit protein synthesis by targeting either the 30S subunit, examples of which include spectinomycin, tetracycline, and the aminoglycosides kanamycin and streptomycin, or to the 50S subunit, examples of which include clindamycin, chloramphenicol, linezolid, and the macrolides erythromycin,

Which of the following antibiotic inhibits protein synthesis of bacteria?

This drug acts to inhibit bacterial protein and DNA synthesis. Puromycin is an antibiotic that prevents bacterial protein translation. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors.

Drug Target Type
Streptomycin 23S ribosomal RNA target
Streptomycin Bacterial outer membrane target
Streptomycin Cytoplasmic membrane target
Kanamycin 30S ribosomal protein S12 target

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Why are human cells not affected by penicillin?

Human cells do not make or need peptidoglycan. The result is a very fragile cell wall that bursts, killing the bacterium. No harm comes to the human host because penicillin does not inhibit any biochemical process that goes on within us.

Why do antibiotics not work against viruses quizlet?

Viruses are not living and reproduce using their host cell’s metabolic pathways. Antibiotics do not affect the host cell’s metabolic processes and so the antibiotics are not effective against viruses.

How does penicillin stop bacteria without harming human cells?

Official Answer. Antibiotics work by interfering with the bacterial cell wall to prevent growth and replication of the bacteria. Human cells do not have cell walls, but many types of bacteria do, and so antibiotics can target bacteria without harming human cells.

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What are two methods used to determine antibiotic susceptibility?

The broth dilution and disk diffusion techniques are the most commonly used methods of bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing in veterinary medicine. Both methods can be used to identify the likely pathogen involved in a bacterial infection and the antibiotic most likely to inhibit the bacteria.

How do you perform a antibiotic susceptibility test?

A plastic strip impregnated with different concentrations of antibiotics is placed on a growth medium, and the growth medium is viewed after a period of incubation. The minimum inhibitory concentration can be identified based on the intersection of the teardrop-shaped zone of inhibition with the marking on the strip.

What is the standard method used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing?

The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method is one of the most widely practiced antimicrobial susceptibility tests (AST). It is affected by many factors among which are the media used. Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) is the standard medium recommended in guidelines.

What inhibits protein synthesis?

Aminoglycosides are protein synthesis inhibitors that act primarily by impairing bacterial protein synthesis through binding to prokaryotic ribosomes.

What is the mechanism of action of erythromycin?

Erythromycin acts by inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to the 23S ribosomal RNA molecule in the 50S subunit of ribosomes in susceptible bacterial organisms.

What bacteria is erythromycin effective on?

Erythromycin is active against most gram-positive bacteria; some gram-negative bacteria, including Neisseria, Bordetella, Bruceila, Campylobacter, and Legionella; and Treponema, Chlamydia, and Mycoplasma.

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